European Elections FAQ

This page gives all the detail on how to register for the European elections in Belgium, where we are voting on Sunday 9 June 2024. The deadline to register was 31 March 2024.


All nationals of any EU member state are EU citizens, and all EU citizens living in Belgium can vote here in the European elections. It’s useful to distinguish four groups based on their nationality and their age on the day of the election:

  1. Belgian nationals aged 18+ If you are an adult Belgian and registered at a municipality in Belgium, you are automatically on the list of voters. Voting is obligatory. 2. Belgian nationals aged 16 or 17 For this year’s European elections, Belgium is lowering the voting age to 16.
  2. Belgian nationals who will be 16 or 17 on the day of the election will be automatically registered and invited to vote. Voting is obligatory for this group*.
  3. EU citizens aged 18+ Any EU citizen aged 18+ living in Belgium can choose to vote in Belgium for parties and candidates on the Belgian lists. To do so, you need to sign up for the electoral list before 31 March 2024. Registration is optional, but voting is obligatory once you are on the list. If you sign up to vote here, you cannot also vote in your home country.
  4. EU citizens aged 16 or 17 The extension of voting rights to younger people also applies to non-Belgian EU citizens, so make sure to tell your children and any teenagers you know! These younger EU citizens also need to sign up for the electoral list before 31 March 2024, just like their adult countrymates, and voting is obligatory once you are on the list*.
Belgians 18+ AutomaticObligatory
Belgians aged 16 and 17AutomaticObligatory*
EU citizens 18+Optional and proactiveObligatory (once registered)
EU citizens aged 16 and 17Optional and proactiveObligatory (once registered)*

If you are not an EU citizen, you cannot vote in the European elections in Belgium. This restriction also applies to citizens of the EEA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland) and to citizens of the UK, who have now lost their EU citizenship.


If you are an EU citizen living in Belgium and you want to vote here, you need to sign up for the electoral list before 31 March 2024.

There are two ways to do this:

1. Online

The 2024 elections bring a huge innovation for democracy in Belgium : online registration for non-Belgians! EU citizens who want to sign up to the electoral list can visit this site and sign up immediately:

Your request will be passed to your municipality (commune/gemeente), and they will send you a letter to confirm once you are on the list. In the very rare case your request is rejected, you can appeal.

To use the online electoral registration system you need a Belgian residence card with a chip, so that you can login to the system with itsme® or an eID card reader. You can also login using an electronic ID card from the following EU member states:

  • Croatia
  • Czechia
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxemburg
  • Malta
  • Portugal
  • Slovakia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • The Netherlands

If you do not have any of those cards and the relevant app or reader, you will not be able to use the online registration system. Unfortunately, the “digital key” used by many holders of a Special ID Card to access public services in Belgium is not valid to access the online electoral registration platform. If you hold a Special ID Card and you do not have a national ID card from one of the 15 states above, you will need to register using a paper form.

2. Using a paper form

If you cannot access the online system, or prefer not to, you can use the paper form ‘C/1b’. Complete the form, sign it and put it in an envelope along with a copy of your Belgian residence card.

You can get a local version of the form ‘C/1b’ from your municipality in person or sometimes on their website. You can also download the federal government’s generic version of the form in French and in Dutch. Once you have filled in and signed the form, send it and the copy of your identity document to your municipality (see the addresses here). Or you can drop it off in person. Note that you cannot send the form by email or fax.

If you hold a Special Identity Card (SIC) through your employer, you still need to send or deliver the form to your local municipaitiy. This also applies to your spouse or any children who themselves hold an SIS.

Your request will be assessed by your municipality (commune/gemeente), and they will send you a letter to confirm once you are on the list. In the very rare case your request is rejected, you can appeal.


If you have a Special Identity Card (SIC) through your employment with an international or diplomatic organisation, you can still register to vote in the EU elections in Belgium. You will do this through your local municipality (commune/gemeente) as described above. The municipality knows that you are here and is responsible for your day-to-day administrative matters, even though you registered with the Foreign Affairs Ministry through your employer when you arrived. (Learn more about the SIC.)

Since your SIC does not have an electronic chip in it, you will probably not be able to access the online election registration portal. You will therefore have to register using the paper form, which you send or deliver to your municipality. See the point above for full instructions.

Note that these comments also apply to your spouse or any children who also hold an SIC.


If you are on the electoral list, you will receive an official “convocation” by post a short time before election day. This will tell you where you need to go to vote: your polling station (bureau de vote/ stembureau). On the day itself (Sunday 9 June) you go to the polling station with your convocation and your identity document, and then follow the instructions to sign in and cast your vote. You will need to leave your identity document and convocation with the people who manage the polling station, but you will get them back once you have voted!

The exact method of voting depends on where you live.

  • In the Brussels-Capital Region, you will vote electronically using a secure voting machine.
  • In francophone Wallonia, you will vote on paper.
  • In the German-speaking municipalities of Wallonia, you will vote electronically.
  • In Flanders, the method will depend on your specific municipality. See the list here (only in Dutch, French or German).

Polling stations with electronic voting are open from 08.00 until 16.00. Those with paper voting are open from 08.00 until 14.00. Remember that voting is obligatory for all adults who are registered, so make sure to plan your Sunday around your trip to the polling station!

Whether on screen or on paper, the voting system is the same.

  • You will see a series of “lists”, each of which is one party or one group of parties standing for election as a coalition. Each list will contain a series of individual candidates, presented in an order chosen by the party/coalition.
  • Voters in the bilingual Brussels-Capital Region will first need to choose if they want to vote for lists in the francophone or Dutch-speaking “electoral college”. You are free to choose either college no matter which language(s) you speak.
  • You can vote for one list as a whole (block list vote), or for one or more individual candidates inside the same list.
  • You can also vote “blank” or spoil your ballot, if you so wish.
  • If you cast a block vote for a list and also vote for one or more candidates in that same list, the votes for individual candidates take precedence and your block list vote will be ignored.
  • Do not mix the lists! If you vote for more than one list, for candidates from more than one list, or for one list and candidates from another list, your vote is invalid and not counted.
  • The government has produced short videos that explain more about how to vote on paper and how to vote electronically (only in Dutch, French or German).


We are a government-funded organisation, so we are strictly neutral and cannot guide you in choosing which parties and/or candidates to vote for in the European elections. However, we can offer some general information.

The Belgian party political landscape can seem complex at first glance, especially in bilingual Brussels where both Francophone and Dutch-speaking parties stand for election. However, this should not intimidate you or stop you voting! Once you start to explore the parties’ positions and proposals, it is likely that you will find an option which matches your own values and opinions.

For an introduction in English, check out these articles from Brussels TimesPolitico and Belga.

You can also try one of the election quizzes developed by various Belgian media in collaboration with academics and the major political parties. These can give a sense of where you sit in the Belgian political landscape. Note that they were developed for regional, federal and European elections on 9 June, rather than the municipal elections on 13 October. So hyper-local issues will not appear. Smaller and newer parties are also absent from the quizzes.

  • RTBF - Test électoral: the Francophone Belgian broadcaster has a general quiz in simple language. Once you've completed the quiz and seen your results for the Francophone parties, you can click the button "Bruxelles" below the results to access further questions specifically about Brussels. This time you can also choose to compare your answers with all major parties, on both sides of the lingustic divide.
  • VRT - Stemtest: the Dutch-speaking Belgian broadcaster has a general quiz in simple language, with a slight focus on Flanders. Once you've completed the quiz and seen your results for the Flemish parties, you can click the button "Brussel" below the results to access further questions specifically about Brussels. This time you can also choose to compare your answers with all major parties, on both sides of the lingustic divide.


You can only vote for the European elections in one country. If you want to vote for the parties and candidates in your home country, you will need to follow your country’s dates, rules and procedures for voters who live abroad. You can find information for every country on elections.europa.

If you take part in the European elections in Belgium in 2024, you cannot vote nor stand in your home country this year. However, if you wish to take part in future European elections in your home country, you can deregister from the Belgian electoral list. Contact your municipality after 9 June 2024.

On the other hand, registering to vote in the European elections in Belgium has no impact on your right to vote in other elections in your home country: national, regional and local elections, as well as referendums and other votes. For those elections, your home country decides the rules and processes for citizens living abroad. Voting in Belgium for the European elections will not affect those rights, and you will not be automatically de-registered from any electoral lists back home.


Voting is indeed a legal obligation for everyone* who is registered on the electoral list, including those aged 16 and 17.* Once your registration on the electoral list has been approved, you are legally bound to vote on 9 June 2024. If you do not vote, you can technically face a formal reprimand or a fine of €40 to €80.

However, you do have the right to deregister before 31 March or after 9 June 2024, via the municipality where you live. If you finally decide you do not want to support any candidate or party, you can vote blank or spoil your ballot, but you need to go to the polling station and cast a vote.


Of course, there are plenty of reasons why you might not be able to vote on the day itself. Don’t worry, there’s a simple solution! You can give a friend or family member your “procuration” (proxy vote). They will then vote on your behalf, and you will not face any risk of sanctions or fines.

You can give your proxy vote for the European elections to any other Belgian or EU citizen who is also registered to vote in the European elections in Belgium. They will need to vote for themselves first, then go to your polling station with their stamped convocation proving they have voted. Each voter can only receive one procuration, so if your whole family is going on holiday you will each need to find someone different.

You give your proxy vote by using a specific form. This needs to be completed and signed by both you (mandant/volmachtgever) and the person to whom you give your proxy vote (mandataire/volmachtkrijger).

You can activate the proxy vote system for various reasons. However, you always need to get the form signed and stamped by a relevant professional who will confirm that your reason is valid.

  • Illness or injury (confirmed by a doctor)
  • Holidays or visits outside of Belgium (confirmed by the municipality – go there in person)
  • Work travel or urgent business as an employee (confirmed by your employer)
  • Work travel or urgent business as a self-employed person (confirmed by the municipality – go there in person)
  • Detention or imprisonment (confirmed by the justice institution)
  • Reasons related to studies (confirmed by your educational institution)
  • Reasons related to religious or philosophical beliefs (confirmed by the religious/philosophical institution)

If you already know you will not be able to vote, try to sort out your proxy vote in advance. Of course, if you are suddenly ill or injured, you can arrange this on the day itself.

You can find more information about proxy voting, an explanatory video and the relevant forms on this website (only in Dutch, French or German).


If you have registered for the electoral list, but you will not be able to vote for one of the valid reasons above, you are expected to find and nominate someone for a proxy vote. However, if you truly cannot find another voter to vote on your behalf, you can contact your local “judge of the peace” (juge de paix/vrederechter) and explain the reasons for the situation. They will then decide if your case is valid and, if it is, release you from the risk of prosecution and sanctions for this election.

You can find the contact details of all judges of the peace in this directory. Some communes in Brussels are divided into several “cantons”, which each have their own judge of the peace. Sometimes several communes are combined into a single canton, with just one judge of the peace. If you are not sure which judge of the peace covers your home address, check the definitions.


You need to take your convocation letter with you on the day when you go to vote, so keep it safe and try not lose it! However, if you do misplace you convocation, don't worry. You can get a duplicate copy from your municipality (commune/gemeente). The municipality is open on election day until the polling stations close.

Some municipalities in Flanders offer a digital duplicate via the eBox. If you need to vote by proxy, the person acting as your proxy will need your paper convocation letter. So if you are giving a proxy and you access the duplicate via the eBox, you will need to print it out and give it to your proxy.


No. So long as you have remained resident in Belgium, you will still be registered – even if you have moved to another municipality in the meantime. If you have spent time living outside of Belgium and then returned, you will need to re-register. If you want to check whether you are indeed on the electoral list, contact your municipality (commune/gemeente).


Yes. There are separate electoral lists for the European and municipal elections. This gives you the flexibility to sign up for one, both, or neither of the lists. But if you want to vote, you need to make sure you are on the right list!

On this page we are explaining how to register for the European elections, which are taking place on Sunday 9 June 2024. The deadline to register is 31 March 2024.

Belgium is also holding municipal elections on Sunday 13 October. EU citizens and some non-EU citizens have the right to vote in those. The deadline to register for the municipal elections is 31 July 2024, but you can already sign up now using the same online platform or with the paper form which you will find on


In Belgium, the polling stations and other offices set up for election day are largely managed by Belgian nationals who are selected amongst those registered to vote. If you have been selected for this role, if is very important that you attend at the place and time stated in the letter. Otherwise, you risk prosecution and a substantial fine. If you cannot fulfil this role for valid personal reasons, reach out the contact person on the letter as soon as possible.


Absolutely! EU citizens can stand on a Belgian list of candidates approved by the principal electoral office. You’ll find more info on